In addition to paper, book printing and gunpowder, the magnetic compass belongs to China's four most important inventions. In the 6th century BCE, the Chinese dis-covered the importance of magnets and, in the 4th century BCE, the magnetic com-pass was developed. In Europe, the magnetic compass was introduced only in the 13th century. The two compasses featured here are used and the larger one con-siderably darkened. It could be restored to a brighter color. Interesting pieces of evidence.
Collection of Herbert Keuper, Germany Herbert Keuper (海爾伯特∙科爾泊爾) 收藏，德國 no. 編號 1 – 88 Mr. Keuper has been specializing in Chinese art for decades and has built up his private collection of Chinese art in the course of about 20 trips to China between the 1970s and the early 90s. Every piece he acquired was intensively examined for its authenticity, including with the collaboration of Chinese and German experts. Professionally, Mr. Keuper was active as a dealer of antique Chinese art, always made his acquisitions with great care and thus, in all the years, never had a complaint about the identification of an object. He had a comprehensive collection of over 300 specialized books by renowned authors about Chinese antiques (which could also be offered for sale as a whole). This private collection is now being sold due to reasons of age. Keuper（科爾泊爾）先生，幾十年來專注於中 國藝術，上世紀70年代起到90年代初，在他近 20次的中國旅行中慢慢構建起了自己的中國 藝術收藏。每一件他收藏的物件都是經過中 國及德國專家反複的真品鑒定。Keuper （科 爾泊爾）先生也曾從事過中國古玩買賣，總是 認真仔細地購買，幾十年來從沒有因爲真假 原因被投訴過。他擁有約300本著名作者的 關於中國古玩的專業書籍（此系列書籍也可 進行投標）。這個私人收藏現在出於藏家本人 年紀原因進行出讓。